Endodontics is a branch of Dentistry. It deals with the treatment of dental soft tissue (nerve, pulp and dentin) in the interior of the tooth. In Layman's terms it can be translated into the root (canal) treatment.
When bacteria gets in, it caries on into the root canal system, inflammation results in the tooth, which should be treated. If there is no treatment performed, the bacteria migrates into the jaw bone, which - most severe pain - causes ulceration of the jaw bone or the formation of a jaw cyst. To prevent this, there are several options for treatment:
Simple cases with straight root canals
Classical root canal treatment ("endodontic treatment")
The root canal has to complete (with an accuracy of 0.08 mm to the tip of the tooth and into all the voids inside) cleaned, polished and filled impermeable to bacteria, usually occurs in about half the cases despite root canal treatment a jaw cyst. It occurs mainly in straight root canals.
More complicated cases with strongly curved, not continuous, branched or root canals
Surgery for obtaining the tooth (root)
This will cut off the root tip of the diseased tooth during surgery, and will be filled in the root canal: the gum section of the jaw bone is exposed and removed in lens size, and the root tip with the inflammatory tissue is removed. Root canal fillings then seals off the cut tip of the root. The wound is sutured. Through the bone regrowing bone tissue fills resection cavity.
Modern surgical microscopes that are equipped with sophisticated optics (up to 35-fold magnification) let the physician no longer work "in the dark". The surgeon can now see deep inside the tooth. Thus he can also recognize irregular, deviating from the norm conditions. In many cases it is even possible to look up at the end of a straight channel. Targeted and certainly difficult ramifications are treatable. Also problematic cases, such as holes in the root canal wall or broken instruments in root canal with the help of surgical microscopes are mostly solved.
If in a multi-rooted tooth only one root is not restorable, it is possible to resect the affected root under maintenance of the restorable roots (following successful root canal treatment - Hemisection, Trisection).